A real check to Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s control is finally coming in the form of an 11 to 40-member Oversight Board that will review appeals to its policy decisions, like content takedowns, and make recommendations for changes. Today Facebook released the charter establishing the theoretically independent Oversight Board, with Zuckerberg explaining that when it takes a stance, “The board’s decision will be binding, even if I or anyone at Facebook disagrees with it.”
Slated to be staffed with members this year, who will be paid by a Facebook-established trust (the biggest update to its January draft charter), the Oversight Board will begin judging cases in the first half of 2020. Given Zuckerberg’s overwhelming voting control of the company, and the fact that its board of directors contains many loyalists, like COO Sheryl Sandberg and investor Peter Thiel whom he’s made very rich, the Oversight Board could ensure the CEO doesn’t always have the final say in how Facebook works.
But in some ways, the committee could serve to shield Zuckerberg and Facebook from scrutiny and regulation, much to their advantage. The Oversight Board could remove total culpability for policy blunders around censorship or political bias from Facebook’s executives. It also might serve as a talking point toward the FTC and other regulators investigating it for potential antitrust violations and other malpractice, as the company could claim the Oversight Board means it’s not completely free to pursue profit over what’s fair for society.

Finally, there remain serious concerns about how the Oversight Board is selected and the wiggle room the charter provides Facebook. Most glaringly, Facebook itself will choose the initial members and then work with them to select the rest of the board, and thereby could avoid adding overly incendiary figures. And it maintains that “Facebook will support the board to the extent that requests are technically and operationally feasible and consistent with a reasonable allocation of Facebook’s resources,” giving it the right to decide if it should apply the precedent of Oversight Board verdicts to similar cases or broadly implement its policy guidance.
How the Oversight Board works
When a user disagrees with how Facebook enforces its policies, and with the result of an appeal to Facebook’s internal moderation team, they can request an appeal to the Oversight Board. Examples of potential cases include someone disagreeing with Facebook’s refusal to deem a piece of content as unacceptable hate speech or bullying, its choice to designate a Page as promoting terrorism and remove it or the company’s decision to leave up problematic content, such as nudity, because it’s newsworthy. Facebook also can directly ask the Oversight Board to review policy decisions or specific cases, especially urgent ones with real-world consequences.

After Zuckerberg initially laid out a blueprint for the Oversight Board a year ago, Facebook assigned a 100-person team to build out the plan for the board. It held six workshops and 22 round-tables, plus case-review simulations with 650 people from 88 countries.
The board will include a minimum of 11 members, but Facebook is aiming for 40. They’ll serve three-year terms and a maximum of three terms each as a part-time job, with appointments staggered so there isn’t a full change-over at any time. Facebook is looking for members with a broad range of knowledge, competencies and expertise who lack conflicts of interest. They’re meant to be “experienced at deliberating thoughtfully and collegially,” “skilled at making and explaining decisions based on a set of policies,” “well-versed on matters relating to digital content and governance” and “independent and impartial.” 
Facebook will appoint a set of trustees that will work with it to select initial co-chairs for the board, who will then assist with sourcing, vetting, interviewing and orienting new members. The goal is “broad diversity of geographic, gender, political, social and religious representation.” The trust, funded by Facebook with an as yet undecided amount of capital, will set members’ compensation rate in the near future and oversee term renewals.

Inevitable calls of biased board members
My biggest worry here is how Facebook will handle the fact that it’s trying to represent an extraordinarily vast set of global policy perspectives…broader than any one country’s laws. What’s taboo or even illegal in one nation may be common or lauded in another. Facebook may see endless challenges from different segments of the public regarding the previous public statements by board members.
What Facebook’s own staff in California might see as an uncontroversial viewpoint could trigger calls for removal from the board elsewhere. We’ve seen how common “cancelled” culture has become when the public digs up problematic content from celebrities or politicians, and that’s just based on what flies in the United States.
For example, Republican senators just bullied Facebook into removing a fact-check that found the statement “abortion is never medically necessary” to be false, allowing that viewpoint to spread uninhibited on the social network. I personally wouldn’t want someone with that viewpoint on the Oversight Board, but others might feel the opposite. And what happens when politicians start demanding more conservative representation on the Oversight Board the same way they’ve badgered Facebook for supposedly censoring them despite evidence to the contrary?
BARCELONA, SPAIN – FEBRUARY 21: Founder and CEO of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg gives his speech during the presentation of the new Samsung Galaxy S7 and Samsung Galaxy S7 edge on February 21, 2016 in Barcelona, Spain. (Photo by David Ramos/Getty Images)
Which cases get reviewed?
The board will choose which cases to review based on their significance and difficulty. They’re looking for issues that are severe, large-scale and important for public discourse, while raising difficult questions about Facebook’s policy or enforcement that is disputed, uncertain or represents tension or trade-offs between Facebook’s recently codified values of authenticity, safety, privacy and dignity. The board will then create a sub-panel of five members to review a specific case.
The board will be able to question the request that Facebook provide information necessary to rule on the case with a mind to not violating user privacy. They’ll interpret Facebook’s Community Standards and policies and then decide whether Facebook should remove or restore a piece of content and whether it should change how that content was designated. Verdicts are meant to have consensus, but will be approved by majority when necessary.
How decisions get made
Once a panel makes a draft decision, it’s circulated to the full board, which can recommend a new panel review if a majority take issue with the verdict. Once they’ve gone through a privacy review to protect the identities of those involved with the case, the decisions will be made public within two weeks and affected users will be notified. Those decisions will be archived in a database, and are meant to act as precedent for future decisions. The idea is that the decisions of the board will be binding and implemented by Facebook as long as they don’t require it to violate the law.

But will Facebook really implement them?
The biggest concern with the charter is that it still provides Facebook some leeway about how to implement the board’s decisions. Critically, it only has to apply the decision to the specific case reviewed, and it’s at the company’s discretion to turn that into blanket policy:
In instances where Facebook identifies that identical content with parallel context — which the board has already decided upon — remains on Facebook, it will take action by analyzing whether it is technically and operationally feasible to apply the board’s decision to that content as well. When a decision includes policy guidance or a policy advisory opinion, Facebook will take further action by analyzing the operational procedures required to implement the guidance, considering it in the formal policy development process of Facebook . . . Facebook will support the board to the extent that requests are technically and operationally feasible and consistent with a reasonable allocation of Facebook’s resources.
Because of these sections I’ve bolded, Facebook has the ability to decide it would be operationally infeasible to do what the board decided in every situation, merely take the guidance into account for future policy-making and choose whether implementation is a reasonable allocation of capital and staff. This provides a sizable gray area.
If Facebook chooses that the board’s decision could materially reduce sharing even if it protected users, it might consider that operationally infeasible. If it would cost too much to moderate content in the way the board recommends, it could deem that unreasonable resource allocation. And if the policy guidance doesn’t mesh with its other objectives, it only has to “consider” the board’s wishes.

This section is where advocates and critics should focus. These exemptions to implementation need to be made less vague if the structure is truly going to hold Facebook accountable. If Facebook just declines to broadly change its policy to fit the board’s recommendation, all the board can do is make binding decisions on specific cases.
Facebook director of governance Brent Harris explained on a call with reporters that “If the board doesn’t feel like we’ve handled it right, they’ll keep taking cases and overturn us.” But again the board’s power is focused on a case-by-case basis. Facebook still controls the wide-reaching changes to policy.
If you want to learn more about solutions to Facebook’s concentration of power, check out my talk at SXSW 2020 with Facebook’s co-founder Chris Hughes, who has called for the company to be broken up.

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Kobalt is betting on musicu2019s middle class and DIY stars”},”content”:{“rendered”:”Streaming services have made music ubiquitous, driving more exploration by consumers who donu2019t have to pay for each song or album individually. Musicians are correspondingly able to find their own niche of fans scattered around the world.n(This is the third installment of our EC-1 series on Kobalt Music Group and changes in the music industry. Read Part I and Part II.)nAs Spotify gained rapid adoption in his native Sweden in 2006, Kobaltu2019s founder & CEO Willard Ahdritz predicted music streaming and the rise of social media would increasingly undercut the gatekeeping power of the major label groups and realign the market to center more on a vast landscape of niche musicians than a handful of traditional superstars.nBoth of these predictions have proven directionally true. The question is to what extent and how are industry players actually realigning as a result?nWhat musicians need in addition to the administrative collection of their royalties (explained in Part II) is a menu of creative services they can tap for support. Kobaltu2019s AWAL and Kobalt Music Publishing divisions provide such services to recording artists and songwriters, respectively, and do so on purely a services basis (getting paid a commission but not taking ownership of copyrights like traditional labels and publishers do).nnHow a Swedish saxophonist built Kobalt, the worldu2019s next music unicornnnNiche middle class vs. Global superstarsnImage via Getty Images / rolfo eclairenThe whole music industry is growing substantially due to streaming musicu2019s mainstream penetration in wealthier countries and increased penetration in emerging markets.nAs the overall pie is growing, the non-superstar segment of the market is indeed growing faster than the superstar segment, taking over a larger portion of industry royalties.nAccording to data from BuzzAngle, the top 500 songs in the US in 2018 accounted for 10% of on-demand audio streams u2014 a dramatic decline in market share compared to 2017 when the top 500 songs accounted for 14% of streams. Stepping back, the top 50,000 songs made up 73.2% of all US streams in 2017 but that declined to 70.5% in 2018.n”,”protected”:false},”excerpt”:{“rendered”:”Streaming services have made music ubiquitous, driving more exploration by consumers who donu2019t have to pay for each song or album individually. Musicians are correspondingly able to find their own niche of fans scattered around the world. 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cult of the founder and Silicon Valleyu2019s lack of moral authority”},”content”:{“rendered”:”nHello and welcome back tou00a0Equity, TechSwitchu2019s venture capital-focused podcast, where we unpack the numbers behind the headlines.nThis week Kate and Alex were back at TechSwitch’s San Francisco headquarters to chat the news with Kleiner Perkin’s Mamoon Hamid. Hamid is best known as a former member of the Social Capital team, and for driving generational change at Kleiner Perkins, a decades-old venture capital firm.nWhile we were prepping our notes, Airbnb announced that it is indeed going public next year. The firm’s terse statement launched 1,000 blog posts (here is one, here is another), while instigating a few jokes. After all, the IPO market is hot now. Saying that you are going to try your best to get out next year isn’t incredibly impressive from a firm with as many billions as Airbnb is today. It’s also not at all surprising.nStill, it’s a near-promise. And that means eventually we’ll get to see what the popular home-sharing and accommodations company spends all its gross margin on. Moving along, we discussed the recent WeWork revelations. If you haven’t read the Wall Street Journal’s piece on the matter, you must.u00a0It is chock-full of colorful anecdotes with WeWork’s co-founder and CEO Adam Neumann front and center.nNext, we got into the news concerning a split at Aspect Ventures, which TechSwitch covered here. We had heard rumors about the split, first reported by The WSJ, for a few weeks now and were interested to discuss what drives these sort of shake-ups with our guest.nScooting ahead, we turned to the early-stage market where quite a few of you, our lovely friends, have asked us to spend more time. So, we talked at length about D2C startups, including the new, and we think cool Thingtesting business. You can check out their Instagram, the focal point of their business, here. Despite enjoying Thingtesting, Kate and Mamoon are bearish on the D2C movement.nAll that and we had a good time. Sorry about the lack of donut continuity in the video. We’re back next week with more, and we’ll see everyone at Disrupt in two weeks!nnnnnnnEquity drops every Friday at 6:00 am PT, so subscribe to us onu00a0Apple Podcasts,u00a0Overcast,u00a0Spotify, and all the casts.nnnnnnn”,”protected”:false},”excerpt”:{“rendered”:”Hello and welcome back tou00a0Equity, TechSwitchu2019s venture capital-focused podcast, where we unpack the numbers behind the headlines.n”,”protected”:false},”author”:133574213,”featured_media”:1884241,”comment_status”:”open”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”sticky”:false,”template”:””,”format”:”standard”,”meta”:{“outcome”:””,”status”:””,”crunchbase_tag”:0,”amp_status”:””,”relegenceEntities”:[],”relegenceSubjects”:[],”jetpack_publicize_message”:”The cult of the founder and Silicon Valleyu2019s lack of moral authority https://tcrn.ch/30hzSc8 by @kateclarktweets and 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She’s interested in diversity & inclusion, consumer technology, mobility and more.nnShe previously covered the venture capital ecosystem for PitchBook News.nnA Seattle native, she is a graduate of the University of Washington, where she studied journalism and international studies.nnReach Kate via e-mail at [email protected] or on Twitter @KateClarkTweets.”,”cbAvatar”:”https://crunchbase-production-res.cloudinary.com/image/upload/prbqsd3b940garp9fcyu”,”twitter”:”kateclarktweets”,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/133574213″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users”}]}},{“id”:1461024,”name”:”Alex Wilhelm”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/alex-wilhelm/”,”description”:”Alex Wilhelm is the editor-in-chief of Crunchbase News and co-host of Equity, TechSwitch’s venture capital-focused podcast.”,”slug”:”alex-wilhelm”,”links”:{“facebook”:”http://www.facebook.com/alex.wilhelm”,”twitter”:”http://twitter.com/alex”,”linkedin”:”http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexwilhelm/”,”crunchbase”:”https://www.crunchbase.com/person/alex-wilhelm”},”position”:”Contributor”,”cbDescription”:”Alex Wilhelm is Crunchbase’s Editor in Chief. 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13: Here are the new security and privacy features you need to know”},”content”:{“rendered”:”It’s finally here.nApple’s new iOS 13, the thirteenth major iteration of its popular iPhone software, is out to download. We took iOS 13 for a spin with a focus on the new security and privacy features to see what’s new and how it all works.nHere’s what you need to know.nYou’ll start to see reminders about apps that track your locationnnEver wonder which apps track your location? Wonder no more — iOS 13 periodically reminds you about apps that are tracking your location in the background. Every so often it will tell you how many times an app has tracked where you’ve been in a recent period of time, along with a small map of the location points. From this screen you can “always allow” the app to track your location or have the option to limit the tracking.nYou can grant an app your location just oncennTo give you more control over what data to have access to, iOS 13 now lets you give apps access to your location just once. Previously there was “always,” “never” or “while using,” meaning an app could be collecting your real-time location as youu2019re using it. Now you can grant an app access on a per-use basis u2014 particularly helpful for the privacy-minded folks.nAnd apps wanting access to Bluetooth can be declined accessnnApps wanting to access Bluetooth will also ask for your consent. Although apps can use Bluetooth to connect to gadgets, like fitness bands and watches, Bluetooth-enabled tracking devices known as beacons can be used to monitor your whereabouts. These beacons are found everywhere u2014 from stores to shopping malls. They can grab your device’s unique Bluetooth identifier and track your physical location between places, building up a picture of where you go and what you do u2014 often for targeting you with ads. Blocking Bluetooth connections from apps that clearly don’t need it will help protect your privacy.nFind My gets a new name u2014 and offline trackingnnFind My, the new app name for locating your friends and lost devices, now comes with offline tracking. If you lost your laptop, you’d rely on its last Wi-Fi-connected location. Now it broadcasts its location using Bluetooth, which is securely uploaded to Apple’s servers using nearby cellular-connected iPhones and other Apple devices. The location data is cryptographically scrambled and anonymized to prevent anyone other than the device owner u2014 including Apple u2014 from tracking your lost devices.nYour apps will no longer be able to snoop on your contacts’ notesnnAnother area that Apple is trying to button down is your contacts. Apps have to ask for your permission before they can access to your contacts. But in doing so they were also able to access the personal notes you wrote on each contact, like their home alarm code or a PIN for phone banking, for example. Now, apps will no longer be able to see what’s in each “notes” field in a user’s contacts.nSign in with Apple lets you use a fake relay email addressnnThis is one of the cooler features coming soon u2014 Apple’s new sign-in option allows users to sign in to apps and services with one tap, and without having to turn over any sensitive or private information. Any app that requires a sign-in option must use Sign in with Apple as an option. In doing so, users can choose to share their email with the app maker, or choose a private “relay” email, which hides a user’s real email address so the app only sees a unique Apple-generated email instead. Apple says it doesn’t collect users’ data, making it a more privacy-minded solution. It works across all devices, including Android devices and websites.nYou can silence unknown callersnnHere’s one way you can cut down on disruptive spam calls: iOS 13 will let you send unknown callers straight to voicemail. Anyone who’s not in your contacts list will be considered an unknown caller.nYou can strip location metadata from your photosnnEvery time you take a photo, your iPhone stores the precise location of where the photo was taken as metadata in the photo file. But that can reveal sensitive or private locations u2014 such as your home or office u2014 if you share those photos on social media or other platforms, many of which don’t strip the data when they’re uploaded. Now you can. With a few taps, you can remove the location data from a photo before sharing it.nAnd Safari gets better anti-tracking featuresnnApple continues to advance its new anti-tracking technologies in its native Safari browser, like preventing cross-site tracking and browser fingerprinting. These features make it far more difficult for ads to track users across the web. And, iOS 13 has its cross-site tracking technology enabled by default so users are protected from the very beginning.nFirst published on July 19 and updated with iOS 13’s launch.u00a0nniOS 13 is now available to downloadnnRead more:nniOS 13 will let you limit app location access to u2018just onceu2019nApple may combine u2018Find My iPhoneu2019 & u2018Find My Friendsu2019 apps, launch a Tile-like tracking devicenWith iOS 13, Apple locks out apps from accessing usersu2019 private notes in ContactsnApple introduces u2018Sign in with Appleu2019 to help protect your privacynAnswers to your burning questions about how u2018Sign In with Appleu2019 worksnHow to stop robocalls spamming your phonenApple has a plan to make online ads more privatenn”,”protected”:false},”excerpt”:{“rendered”:”It’s finally here. Apple’s new iOS 13, the thirteenth major iteration of its popular iPhone software, is out to download. We took iOS 13 for a spin with a focus on the new security and privacy features to see what’s new and how it all works. Here’s what you need to know. 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You can send tips securely via Signal and WhatsApp to +1 646-755-8849, and his PGP fingerprint for email is: 4D0E 92F2 E36A EC51 DAAE 5D97 CB8C 15FA EB6C EEA5.rnrnHe can also be reached by email: [email protected]”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/zack-whittaker/”,”slug”:”zack-whittaker”,”avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/9c6f2f007a1fadfcf4f9da867130c493?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/9c6f2f007a1fadfcf4f9da867130c493?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/9c6f2f007a1fadfcf4f9da867130c493?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”links”:{“homepage”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/zack-whittaker/”,”facebook”:”https://www.facebook.com/zackwhittaker”,”twitter”:”https://twitter.com/zackwhittaker”,”linkedin”:”https://www.linkedin.com/in/zackwhittaker/”,”crunchbase”:”https://www.crunchbase.com/person/zack-whittaker”},”position”:”Security Editor”,”cbDescription”:”Zack Whittaker is the security editor at TechCrunch. You can send tips securely via Signal and WhatsApp to +1 646-755-8849, and his PGP fingerprint for email is: 4D0E 92F2 E36A EC51 DAAE 5D97 CB8C 15FA EB6C EEA5.nnHe can also be reached by email: [email protected]”,”cbAvatar”:”https://crunchbase-production-res.cloudinary.com/image/upload/arqrabrudwyofg3sb2pl”,”twitter”:”zackwhittaker”,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/133574210″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users”}]}}],”author”:[{“id”:133574210,”name”:”Zack Whittaker”,”url”:””,”description”:”Zack Whittaker writes about cybersecurity for TechCrunch. You can send tips securely via Signal and WhatsApp to +1 646-755-8849, and his PGP fingerprint for email is: 4D0E 92F2 E36A EC51 DAAE 5D97 CB8C 15FA EB6C EEA5.rnrnHe can also be reached by email: [email protected]”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/zack-whittaker/”,”slug”:”zack-whittaker”,”avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/9c6f2f007a1fadfcf4f9da867130c493?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/9c6f2f007a1fadfcf4f9da867130c493?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/9c6f2f007a1fadfcf4f9da867130c493?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”links”:{“homepage”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/zack-whittaker/”,”facebook”:”https://www.facebook.com/zackwhittaker”,”twitter”:”https://twitter.com/zackwhittaker”,”linkedin”:”https://www.linkedin.com/in/zackwhittaker/”,”crunchbase”:”https://www.crunchbase.com/person/zack-whittaker”},”position”:”Security Editor”,”cbDescription”:”Zack Whittaker is the security editor at TechCrunch. You can send tips securely via Signal and WhatsApp to +1 646-755-8849, and his PGP fingerprint for email is: 4D0E 92F2 E36A EC51 DAAE 5D97 CB8C 15FA EB6C EEA5.nnHe can also be reached by email: [email protected]”,”cbAvatar”:”https://crunchbase-production-res.cloudinary.com/image/upload/arqrabrudwyofg3sb2pl”,”twitter”:”zackwhittaker”,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/133574210″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users”}]}}],”wp:featuredmedia”:[{“id”:1857463,”date”:”2019-07-18T09:16:54″,”slug”:”apple-ios-13″,”type”:”attachment”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/19/ios-13-security-privacy/apple-ios-13/”,”title”:{“rendered”:”apple-ios-13″},”author”:133574210,”license”:{“source_key”:”other”,”source”:”Apple/YouTube”},”authors”:[133574210],”caption”:{“rendered”:”apple ios 13n”},”alt_text”:”apple ios 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co-founder Marc Randolph on the company’s earliest days, the streaming wars, and moving on”},”content”:{“rendered”:”Netflix is today a company whose valuation hovers around $130 billion, but it was, of course, once a little startup, and in his new book “That Will Never Work,” Netflix’s co-founder and its first CEO Marc Randolph takes readers on a fun and surprisingly vivid journey through the streaming giant’s earliest days.nIt’s also instructive, though this is more memoir than business book, and Randolph, who is the great nephew of Edward Bernays — au00a0 public relations pioneer — turns out to be a very compelling writer, explaining in sometimes humbling detail how and why the company eventually outgrew him, and the reason he doesn’t regret stepping away when he did.nIn fact, rather than lament past decisions, Randolph seems to relish his longtime work as a startup advisor, one who often has no financial ties to the companies he helps. As he explains it, there is a “role for someone in a founderu2019s life who isnu2019t a board member or an investor or an employee. The role of a founder-CEO is extremely lonely. You canu2019t always be fully forthcoming with your board or investors or employees. And if you go to your peers and you bring them an issue, they donu2019t really understand. So itu2019s very valuable for a founder who doesnu2019t have an ulterior motive but also understands a problem well enough that they can give really good advice.”nWe had a chance to catch up with Randolph earlier today to discuss the book and his current relationship with his Netflix co-founder Reed Hastings, who he met when the company that Hastings began running in 1991, Pure Atria, acquired Randolph’s company, Integrity QA Software, (They both found themselves searching out the next big thing when Pure Atria was itself acquired.)nRandolph also shared why it took him 16 years to tell his story about what has become one of the most impactful companies in the history of television.nTC: We’re still zipping through the book but there is a lot of great storytelling here, from scenes with you and Reed carpooling to the office together, to some of earlier startup ideas you ran past him and he didn’t think much of, including customized baseball bats. Did you write this alone?nMR: Of course, I had help, you can’t write about something as important as Netflix by yourself. Over the course of one-and-a-half years, I spent tons of time on the phone and [engaged in] email correspondence and in meetings with everyone I could track down, because I wanted to hear all those stories again. But this isn’t a ghostwritten book and it’s not a as-told-to book. I did write it with the help of a great editor. In fact, the book was originally conceived as more of a self-help book, but my editor came back and said, “You shouldn’t do this as a ‘you’ book. Make it a ‘me’ book. Make the lessons you’ve learn over your career implicit instead of explicit.”nBut I’ve been writing all my life. I was a direct marketing guy [before founding Netflix]. I had to restrain myself from writing things like, “Frankly, I’m puzzled,” and “But wait! There’s more!”nTC: You left Netflix in 2003. Why not write a book sooner?nMR: I needed to wait all that time. 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But the idea of pleasure versus function, plus the stigma still associated with all-things sex, is at the root of the barriers some startup founders face.nJust last month, Samsung was forced to apologize to sextech startup Lioness after it wrongfully asked the company to take down its booth at an event it was co-hosting. Lioness is a smart vibrator that aims to improve orgasms through biofeedback data.nSextech companies that relate to the ability to reproduce or, the ability to not reproduce, donu2019t always face the same problems when it comes to everything from social acceptance to advertising to raising venture funding. It seems to come down to the distinction between pleasure and function, stigma and the patriarchy.u00a0nThis is where the trajectories for sextech startups can diverge. Some startups have raised hundreds of millions from traditional investors in Silicon Valley while others have struggled to raise any funding at all. 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startup CSOs can learn from three enterprise security experts”},”content”:{“rendered”:”How do you keep your startup secure?nThat’s the big question we explored at TC Sessions: Enterprise earlier this month. No matter the size, every startup is an enterprise. Every startup will grow in size as it builds out. But as a company expands, that rapid growth can lead to a distraction from the foundational principle of any modern company u2014 keeping it secure.nSecurity isn’t just a buzzword. As some of the largest companies in Silicon Valley have shown, security can be difficult. From storing passwords in plaintext to data breaches galore, how can startups learn from some of the biggest security lapses in the tech industry’s history?nOur panel consisted of three of the brightest minds in enterprise security: Wendy Nather, head of advisory CISOs at Duo Security, is an enterprise security expert; Martin Casado, general partner at Andreessen Horowitz, is a security and enterprise startup investor; and Emily Heath, United’s chief information security officer, oversees the security operations of the largest U.S. airlines.nThis is what advice they had.nSecurity from the very startn”,”protected”:false},”excerpt”:{“rendered”:”How do you keep your startup secure? That’s the big question we explored at TC Sessions: Enterprise earlier this month. No matter the size, every startup is an enterprise. Every startup will grow in size as it builds out. 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You can send tips securely via Signal and WhatsApp to +1 646-755-8849, and his PGP fingerprint for email is: 4D0E 92F2 E36A EC51 DAAE 5D97 CB8C 15FA EB6C EEA5.nnHe can also be reached by email: [email protected]”,”cbAvatar”:”https://crunchbase-production-res.cloudinary.com/image/upload/arqrabrudwyofg3sb2pl”,”twitter”:”zackwhittaker”,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/133574210″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users”}]}}],”wp:featuredmedia”:[{“id”:1882006,”date”:”2019-09-16T08:42:29″,”slug”:”keeping-the-enterprise-secure-with-martin-casado-andreessen-horowitz-emily-heath-united-airlines-and-wendy-nather-duo-security-2″,”type”:”attachment”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/16/what-startup-csos-can-learn-from-three-enterprise-security-experts/keeping-the-enterprise-secure-with-martin-casado-andreessen-horowitz-emily-heath-united-airlines-and-wendy-nather-duo-security-2/”,”title”:{“rendered”:”Keeping the Enterprise 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Link”,”children”:[]},{“id”:1605180,”order”:16,”parent”:0,”text”:”TC Cribs”,”url”:”/shows/tc-cribs”,”attr”:””,”target”:””,”classes”:[“”],”description”:””,”object_id”:1605180,”object”:”custom”,”type”:”custom”,”type_label”:”Custom Link”,”children”:[]}]},”playlistData”:{“homepage”:[],”videohub”:[]},”entities”:{“posts”:[{“id”:1882773,”date”:”2019-09-17T13:00:09″,”date_gmt”:”2019-09-17T20:00:09″,”guid”:{“rendered”:”https://techcrunch.com/?p=1882773″},”modified”:”2019-09-17T14:43:49″,”modified_gmt”:”2019-09-17T21:43:49″,”slug”:”facebook-oversight-board”,”status”:”publish”,”type”:”post”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/”,”title”:{“rendered”:”Facebook’s new policy Supreme Court could override Zuckerberg”},”content”:{“rendered”:”A real check to Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s control is finally coming in the form of an 11 to 40-member Oversight Board that will review appeals to its policy decisions, like content takedowns, and make recommendations for changes. Today Facebook released the charter establishing the theoretically independent Oversight Board, with Zuckerberg explaining that when it takes a stance, “The board’s decision will be binding, even if I or anyone at Facebook disagrees with it.”nSlated to be staffed with members this year, who will be paid by a Facebook-established trust (the biggest update to its January draft charter), the Oversight Board will begin judging cases in the first half of 2020. Given Zuckerberg’s overwhelming voting control of the company, and the fact that its board of directors contains many loyalists, like COO Sheryl Sandberg and investor Peter Thiel whom he’s made very rich, the Oversight Board could ensure the CEO doesn’t always have the final say in how Facebook works.nBut in some ways, the committee could serve to shield Zuckerberg and Facebook from scrutiny and regulation, much to their advantage. The Oversight Board could remove total culpability for policy blunders around censorship or political bias from Facebook’s executives. It also might serve as a talking point toward the FTC and other regulators investigating it for potential antitrust violations and other malpractice, as the company could claim the Oversight Board means it’s not completely free to pursue profit over what’s fair for society.nnnnnnOne of the most important projects I’ve worked on over the past couple of years is establishing an independent Oversight…nPosted by Mark Zuckerberg on Tuesday, September 17, 2019nnnFinally, there remain serious concerns about how the Oversight Board is selected and the wiggle room the charter provides Facebook. Most glaringly, Facebook itself will choose the initial members and then work with them to select the rest of the board, and thereby could avoid adding overly incendiary figures. And it maintains that “Facebook will support the board to the extent that requests are technically and operationally feasible and consistent with a reasonable allocation of Facebooku2019s resources,” giving it the right to decide if it should apply the precedent of Oversight Board verdicts to similar cases or broadly implement its policy guidance.nHow the Oversight Board worksnWhen a user disagrees with how Facebook enforces its policies, and with the result of an appeal to Facebook’s internal moderation team, they can request an appeal to the Oversight Board. Examples of potential cases include someone disagreeing with Facebook’s refusal to deem a piece of content as unacceptable hate speech or bullying, its choice to designate a Page as promoting terrorism and remove it or the company’s decision to leave up problematic content, such as nudity, because it’s newsworthy. Facebook also can directly ask the Oversight Board to review policy decisions or specific cases, especially urgent ones with real-world consequences.nnAfter Zuckerberg initially laid out a blueprint for the Oversight Board a year ago, Facebook assigned a 100-person team to build out the plan for the board. It held six workshops and 22 round-tables, plus case-review simulations with 650 people from 88 countries.nThe board will include a minimum of 11 members, but Facebook is aiming for 40. They’ll serve three-year terms and a maximum of three terms each as a part-time job, with appointments staggered so there isn’t a full change-over at any time. Facebook is looking for members with a broad range of knowledge, competencies and expertise who lack conflicts of interest. They’re meant to be “experienced at deliberating thoughtfully and collegially,” “skilled at making and explaining decisions based on a set of policies,” “well-versed on matters relating to digital content and governance” and “independent and impartial.”u00a0nFacebook will appoint a set of trustees that will work with it to select initial co-chairs for the board, who will then assist with sourcing, vetting, interviewing and orienting new members. The goal is “broad diversity of geographic, gender, political, social and religious representation.” The trust, funded by Facebook with an as yet undecided amount of capital, will set members’ compensation rate in the near future and oversee term renewals.nnInevitable calls of biased board membersnMy biggest worry here is how Facebook will handle the fact that it’s trying to represent an extraordinarily vast set of global policy perspectives…broader than any one country’s laws. What’s taboo or even illegal in one nation may be common or lauded in another. Facebook may see endless challenges from different segments of the public regarding the previous public statements by board members.nWhat Facebook’s own staff in California might see as an uncontroversial viewpoint could trigger calls for removal from the board elsewhere. We’ve seen how common “cancelled” culture has become when the public digs up problematic content from celebrities or politicians, and that’s just based on what flies in the United States.nFor example, Republican senators just bullied Facebook into removing a fact-check that found the statement “abortion is never medically necessary” to be false, allowing that viewpoint to spread uninhibited on the social network. I personally wouldn’t want someone with that viewpoint on the Oversight Board, but others might feel the opposite. And what happens when politicians start demanding more conservative representation on the Oversight Board the same way they’ve badgered Facebook for supposedly censoring them despite evidence to the contrary?nBARCELONA, SPAIN – FEBRUARY 21: Founder and CEO of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg gives his speech during the presentation of the new Samsung Galaxy S7 and Samsung Galaxy S7 edge on February 21, 2016 in Barcelona, Spain. (Photo by David Ramos/Getty Images)nWhich cases get reviewed?nThe board will choose which cases to review based on their significance and difficulty. They’re looking for issues that are severe, large-scale and important for public discourse, while raising difficult questions about Facebook’s policy or enforcement that is disputed, uncertain or represents tension or trade-offs between Facebook’s recently codified values of authenticity, safety, privacy and dignity. The board will then create a sub-panel of five members to review a specific case.nThe board will be able to question the request that Facebook provide information necessary to rule on the case with a mind to not violating user privacy. They’ll interpret Facebook’s Community Standards and policies and then decide whether Facebook should remove or restore a piece of content and whether it should change how that content was designated. Verdicts are meant to have consensus, but will be approved by majority when necessary.nHow decisions get madenOnce a panel makes a draft decision, it’s circulated to the full board, which can recommend a new panel review if a majority take issue with the verdict. Once they’ve gone through a privacy review to protect the identities of those involved with the case, the decisions will be made public within two weeks and affected users will be notified. Those decisions will be archived in a database, and are meant to act as precedent for future decisions. The idea is that the decisions of the board will be binding and implemented by Facebook as long as they don’t require it to violate the law.nnBut will Facebook really implement them?nThe biggest concern with the charter is that it still provides Facebook some leeway about how to implement the board’s decisions. Critically, it only has to apply the decision to the specific case reviewed, and it’s at the company’s discretion to turn that into blanket policy:nIn instances where Facebook identifies that identical content with parallel context — which the board has already decided upon — remains on Facebook, it will take action by analyzing whether it is technically and operationally feasible to apply the boardu2019s decision to that content as well. When a decision includes policy guidance or a policy advisory opinion, Facebook will take further action by analyzing the operational procedures required to implement the guidance, considering it in the formal policy development process of Facebook . . . Facebook will support the board to the extent that requests are technically and operationally feasible and consistent with a reasonable allocation of Facebooku2019s resources.nBecause of these sections I’ve bolded, Facebook has the ability to decide it would be operationally infeasible to do what the board decided in every situation, merely take the guidance into account for future policy-making and choose whether implementation is a reasonable allocation of capital and staff. This provides a sizable gray area.nIf Facebook chooses that the board’s decision could materially reduce sharing even if it protected users, it might consider that operationally infeasible. If it would cost too much to moderate content in the way the board recommends, it could deem that unreasonable resource allocation. And if the policy guidance doesn’t mesh with its other objectives, it only has to “consider” the board’s wishes.nnThis section is where advocates and critics should focus. These exemptions to implementation need to be made less vague if the structure is truly going to hold Facebook accountable. If Facebook just declines to broadly change its policy to fit the board’s recommendation, all the board can do is make binding decisions on specific cases.nFacebook director of governance Brent Harris explained on a call with reporters that “If the board doesn’t feel like we’ve handled it right, they’ll keep taking cases and overturn us.” But again the board’s power is focused on a case-by-case basis. Facebook still controls the wide-reaching changes to policy.nIf you want to learn more about solutions to Facebook’s concentration of power, check out my talk at SXSW 2020 with Facebook’s co-founder Chris Hughes, who has called for the company to be broken up.nn”,”protected”:false},”excerpt”:{“rendered”:”A real check to Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s control is finally coming in the form of an 11 to 40-member Oversight Board that will review appeals to its policy decisions, like content takedowns, and make recommendations for changes. Today Facebook released the charter establishing the theoretically independent Oversight Board, with Zuckerberg explaining that when it […]n”,”protected”:false},”author”:1603003,”featured_media”:1882798,”comment_status”:”open”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”sticky”:false,”template”:””,”format”:”standard”,”meta”:{“outcome”:””,”status”:””,”crunchbase_tag”:0,”amp_status”:””,”relegenceEntities”:[],”relegenceSubjects”:[],”jetpack_publicize_message”:”Facebook’s new policy Supreme Court could override Zuckerberg https://tcrn.ch/30rsg1R by @joshconstine”},”categories”:[449557102,15986864,329026,13217,426637499,3457,17396],”tags”:[81819,14332125,341024],”crunchbase_tag”:[205254083],”tc_stories_tax”:[],”tc_event”:[],”jetpack_featured_media_url”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/fb-arbiter-of-truth.png”,”jetpack_publicize_connections”:[],”shortlink”:”https://tcrn.ch/30rsg1R”,”rapidData”:{“pt”:””,”pct”:””},”featured”:false,”subtitle”:””,”fundingRound”:false,”seoTitle”:””,”seoDescription”:””,”premiumContent”:false,”premiumCutoffPercent”:1,”tc_cb_mapping”:[{“slug”:”facebook”,”cb_name”:”Facebook”,”cb_slug”:”facebook-organization”,”cb_link”:”https://crunchbase.com/organization/facebook”},{“slug”:”mark-zuckerberg”,”cb_name”:”Mark Zuckerberg”,”cb_slug”:”mark-zuckerberg-person”,”cb_link”:”https://crunchbase.com/person/mark-zuckerberg”}],”associatedEvent”:null,”event”:null,”authors”:[1603003],”hideFeaturedImage”:false,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts”}],”about”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/types/post”}],”version-history”:[{“count”:12,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773/revisions”}],”predecessor-version”:[{“id”:1882867,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773/revisions/1882867″}],”authors”:[{“embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/1603003″}],”replies”:[{“embeddable”:true,”count”:5,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments?post=1882773&order=asc&tc_hierarchical=flat”}],”https://techcrunch.com/edit”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=1882773&action=edit”}],”author”:[{“embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/1603003″}],”wp:featuredmedia”:[{“embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/media/1882798″}],”wp:attachment”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/media?parent=1882773″}],”wp:term”:[{“taxonomy”:”category”,”embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/categories?post=1882773″},{“taxonomy”:”post_tag”,”embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/tags?post=1882773″},{“taxonomy”:”_tc_cb_tag_taxonomy”,”embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/crunchbase_tag?post=1882773″},{“taxonomy”:”tc_stories_tax”,”embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/tc_stories_tax?post=1882773″},{“taxonomy”:”tc_event”,”embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/tc_event?post=1882773″}],”curies”:[{“name”:”wp”,”href”:”https://api.w.org/{rel}”,”templated”:true}]},”_embedded”:{“authors”:[{“id”:1603003,”name”:”Josh Constine”,”url”:””,”description”:””,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/josh-constine/”,”slug”:”josh-constine”,”avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fd3b857e7f0024396cdbd36c4c102a5d?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fd3b857e7f0024396cdbd36c4c102a5d?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fd3b857e7f0024396cdbd36c4c102a5d?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”links”:{“homepage”:”http://www.JoshConstine.com”,”facebook”:”http://www.facebook.com/JoshConstine”,”twitter”:”https://twitter.com/joshconstine”,”linkedin”:”https://www.linkedin.com/in/joshconstine/”,”crunchbase”:”https://www.crunchbase.com/person/josh-constine”},”position”:”Editor-At-Large”,”cbDescription”:”Josh Constine is a technology journalist who specializes in deep analysis of social products. He is currently an Editor-At-Large for TechCrunch and is available for speaking engagements.nnPreviously, Constine was the Lead Writer of Inside Facebook through its acquisition by WebMediaBrands, covering everything about the social network.nnConstine graduated from Stanford University in 2009 with a Master’s degree in Cybersociology, examining the influence of technology on social interaction. He researched the impact of privacy controls on the socialization of children, meme popularity cycles, and what influences the click through rate of links posted to Twitter.nnConstine also received a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors from Stanford University in 2007, with a concentration in Social Psychology & Interpersonal Processes.nnJosh Constine is an experienced public speaker, and has moderated over 120 on-stage interviews in 15 countries with leaders including Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, whistleblower Edward Snowden (via on-stage video conference), and U.S. Senator Cory Booker. He is available to moderate panels and fireside chats, deliver keynotes, and judge hackathon and pitch competitions.nnConstine has been quoted by The Wall Street Journal, CNN Money, The Atlantic, BBC World Magazine, Slate, and more, plus has been featured on television on Good Morning, America, The Today Show, China Central Television, and Fox News. Constine is ranked as the #1 most cited tech journalist on prestigious news aggregator Techmeme.nn[Disclosures: Josh Constine temporarily advised a college friend’s social location-sharing startup codenamed ‘Signal’ that was based in San Francisco before dissolving in 2015. This advising role was cleared with AOL and TechCrunch’s editors and has concluded. Constine’s fiancu00e9e Andee Gardiner co-founded startup accelerator Founders Embassy. Constine’s cousin Darren Lachtman is the founder of influencer advertising startup Niche that was acquired by Twitter, and he’s since left and founded teen content studio Brat. Constine does not write about Founders Embassy or Brat. Constine has personal acquaintances stemming from college housing circa 2007 with founders at Skybox Imaging (now Terra Bella), Hustle, Snapchat, and Robinhood, but does not maintain close social ties with them nor does that influence his writing. Constine occasionally does paid speaking engagements at conferences, but only those funded by companies he does not cover. Constine owns a small position in Ethereum and Bitcoin cryptocurrencies, does not day-trade, and discloses his positions directly in articles where appropriate. Constine does not do consulting, angel investing, or public stock trading beyond public stock invesments by his parents’ estate that he has no role in managing or advising.]”,”cbAvatar”:”https://crunchbase-production-res.cloudinary.com/image/upload/v1415412437/xje35licfau9iewxnf44.png”,”twitter”:”joshconstine”,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/1603003″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users”}]}}],”replies”:[[{“id”:673004,”parent”:0,”author”:0,”author_name”:”Kravin Moorhed”,”author_url”:””,”date”:”2019-09-17T14:27:06″,”content”:{“rendered”:”Start by removing the ability for advertisers to write their own headlines for news articles they are promoting.n”},”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/#comment-673004″,”type”:”comment”,”author_avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/d1fe07e3d6004fff9dba323d44a6c0a6?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/d1fe07e3d6004fff9dba323d44a6c0a6?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/d1fe07e3d6004fff9dba323d44a6c0a6?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”techcrunch”:{“avatar”:”https://ct.yimg.com/cy/1768/39361574426_98028a_64sq.jpg”,”company”:”(no company found)”,”title”:”(no title found)”,”user”:”2EU6MR7UTAJL6BHBAI7PGY5SKP”},”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673004″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments”}],”up”:[{“embeddable”:true,”post_type”:”post”,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773″}],”children”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments?parent=673004″}]}},{“id”:673019,”parent”:0,”author”:0,”author_name”:”Rashaverick Overlord”,”author_url”:””,”date”:”2019-09-17T21:02:14″,”content”:{“rendered”:”Fakebook was founded on overt theft and deception, and it will perish by its own ongoing evil.n”},”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/#comment-673019″,”type”:”comment”,”author_avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b754eef8128d0724750c038787218fa9?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b754eef8128d0724750c038787218fa9?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b754eef8128d0724750c038787218fa9?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”techcrunch”:{“avatar”:”https://ct.yimg.com/cy/1768/39361574426_98028a_64sq.jpg”,”company”:”(no company found)”,”title”:”(no title found)”,”user”:”UOOL2VXXPCWW63JIKYIHZUPO4Q”},”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673019″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments”}],”up”:[{“embeddable”:true,”post_type”:”post”,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773″}],”children”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments?parent=673019″}]}},{“id”:673022,”parent”:0,”author”:0,”author_name”:”Herr Trigger”,”author_url”:””,”date”:”2019-09-17T21:09:46″,”content”:{“rendered”:”So a few Republican senators ask Facebook to look into the bias on display in their censorship decision making process and its “bullying”. A Democratic senator demands Amazon respond to his list of questions about the relationship between Ring and police departments and demands they respond by a certain date…. and that’s being “socially conscious”? Just checking. n”},”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/#comment-673022″,”type”:”comment”,”author_avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/f4ecc781fe64569634096aeb362220c7?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/f4ecc781fe64569634096aeb362220c7?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/f4ecc781fe64569634096aeb362220c7?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”techcrunch”:{“avatar”:”https://ct.yimg.com/cy/1768/39361574426_98028a_64sq.jpg”,”company”:”(no company found)”,”title”:”(no title found)”,”user”:”CLXFIPBXZGQG6FJMUBFYXBBZZP”},”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673022″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments”}],”up”:[{“embeddable”:true,”post_type”:”post”,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773″}]}},{“id”:673203,”parent”:673004,”author”:0,”author_name”:”Fred Marko”,”author_url”:””,”date”:”2019-09-20T09:21:15″,”content”:{“rendered”:”Ever since I started off working over this site, I am earning $43 every fifteen minutes. And, as unbelievable it sounds, it is even more easy to do, cause Iu2019ve never had a job this easy. Anyone can do it, with no exception. I suggest you, try not skipping this superb chance, which you can exercise even in your spare time for some additional bonus bucks to your main source of income, u2019cause you wonu2019t forgive yourself afterwards. Hereu2019s all about this https://dailysmarterlifetips.tumblr.comn”},”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/#comment-673203″,”type”:”comment”,”author_avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/d9f61ecd74cfc4337269877be2b216c7?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/d9f61ecd74cfc4337269877be2b216c7?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/d9f61ecd74cfc4337269877be2b216c7?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”techcrunch”:{“avatar”:”https://ct.yimg.com/cy/1768/39361574426_98028a_64sq.jpg”,”company”:”(no company found)”,”title”:”(no title found)”,”user”:”CKQW6FG3VAG63NBOZCS2V5QSHA”},”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673203″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments”}],”up”:[{“embeddable”:true,”post_type”:”post”,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773″}],”in-reply-to”:[{“embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673004″}]}},{“id”:673191,”parent”:673019,”author”:0,”author_name”:”David Leeper”,”author_url”:””,”date”:”2019-09-20T08:50:42″,”content”:{“rendered”:”I believe this is actually true. You are speaking of the proven infringement on a patent from Leader Technologies, no? nAnd Zuckerberg allegedly stole the software source code for his first version of Facebook from a fellow student’s email account, no?n”},”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/#comment-673191″,”type”:”comment”,”author_avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/2cd96a096871bbeca20b252959829ff2?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/2cd96a096871bbeca20b252959829ff2?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/2cd96a096871bbeca20b252959829ff2?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”techcrunch”:{“avatar”:”https://ct.yimg.com/cy/1768/39361574426_98028a_64sq.jpg”,”company”:”(no company found)”,”title”:”(no title found)”,”user”:”ADKWFHSQLCUBAEMD2LODVCS65Q”},”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673191″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments”}],”up”:[{“embeddable”:true,”post_type”:”post”,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/1882773″}],”in-reply-to”:[{“embeddable”:true,”href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/wp/v2/comments/673019″}]}}]],”author”:[{“id”:1603003,”name”:”Josh Constine”,”url”:””,”description”:””,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/author/josh-constine/”,”slug”:”josh-constine”,”avatar_urls”:{“24″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fd3b857e7f0024396cdbd36c4c102a5d?s=24&d=identicon&r=g”,”48″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fd3b857e7f0024396cdbd36c4c102a5d?s=48&d=identicon&r=g”,”96″:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fd3b857e7f0024396cdbd36c4c102a5d?s=96&d=identicon&r=g”},”links”:{“homepage”:”http://www.JoshConstine.com”,”facebook”:”http://www.facebook.com/JoshConstine”,”twitter”:”https://twitter.com/joshconstine”,”linkedin”:”https://www.linkedin.com/in/joshconstine/”,”crunchbase”:”https://www.crunchbase.com/person/josh-constine”},”position”:”Editor-At-Large”,”cbDescription”:”Josh Constine is a technology journalist who specializes in deep analysis of social products. He is currently an Editor-At-Large for TechCrunch and is available for speaking engagements.nnPreviously, Constine was the Lead Writer of Inside Facebook through its acquisition by WebMediaBrands, covering everything about the social network.nnConstine graduated from Stanford University in 2009 with a Master’s degree in Cybersociology, examining the influence of technology on social interaction. He researched the impact of privacy controls on the socialization of children, meme popularity cycles, and what influences the click through rate of links posted to Twitter.nnConstine also received a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors from Stanford University in 2007, with a concentration in Social Psychology & Interpersonal Processes.nnJosh Constine is an experienced public speaker, and has moderated over 120 on-stage interviews in 15 countries with leaders including Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, whistleblower Edward Snowden (via on-stage video conference), and U.S. Senator Cory Booker. He is available to moderate panels and fireside chats, deliver keynotes, and judge hackathon and pitch competitions.nnConstine has been quoted by The Wall Street Journal, CNN Money, The Atlantic, BBC World Magazine, Slate, and more, plus has been featured on television on Good Morning, America, The Today Show, China Central Television, and Fox News. Constine is ranked as the #1 most cited tech journalist on prestigious news aggregator Techmeme.nn[Disclosures: Josh Constine temporarily advised a college friend’s social location-sharing startup codenamed ‘Signal’ that was based in San Francisco before dissolving in 2015. This advising role was cleared with AOL and TechCrunch’s editors and has concluded. Constine’s fiancu00e9e Andee Gardiner co-founded startup accelerator Founders Embassy. Constine’s cousin Darren Lachtman is the founder of influencer advertising startup Niche that was acquired by Twitter, and he’s since left and founded teen content studio Brat. Constine does not write about Founders Embassy or Brat. Constine has personal acquaintances stemming from college housing circa 2007 with founders at Skybox Imaging (now Terra Bella), Hustle, Snapchat, and Robinhood, but does not maintain close social ties with them nor does that influence his writing. Constine occasionally does paid speaking engagements at conferences, but only those funded by companies he does not cover. Constine owns a small position in Ethereum and Bitcoin cryptocurrencies, does not day-trade, and discloses his positions directly in articles where appropriate. Constine does not do consulting, angel investing, or public stock trading beyond public stock invesments by his parents’ estate that he has no role in managing or advising.]”,”cbAvatar”:”https://crunchbase-production-res.cloudinary.com/image/upload/v1415412437/xje35licfau9iewxnf44.png”,”twitter”:”joshconstine”,”_links”:{“self”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users/1603003″}],”collection”:[{“href”:”https://techcrunch.com/wp-json/tc/v1/users”}]}}],”wp:featuredmedia”:[{“id”:1882798,”date”:”2019-09-17T12:59:56″,”slug”:”fb-arbiter-of-truth-3″,”type”:”attachment”,”link”:”https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/17/facebook-oversight-board/fb-arbiter-of-truth-3/”,”title”:{“rendered”:”fb-arbiter-of-truth”},”author”:1603003,”license”:””,”authors”:[1603003],”caption”:{“rendered”:”fb arbiter of truthn”},”alt_text”:”fb arbiter of 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